Category Archives: Preschooler

The Runt of my Litter. Why I Worry About my Smallest Child and When You Should Worry about Yours.

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CharlottesWebEvery day in the office at least one parent expresses concern over their smallest child: “His siblings were so much bigger at this age”; “Why is she sick all the time?”.

I can completely relate to their concerns. My 4 year old daughter is a runt1. Like Wilbur the pig2,3, she is sweet and brilliant, but small and often sickly. My husband and I are both tall, athletic people. Her sister has always been in the 95th percentile for her height and weight. Little E is taller than average, but she is scrawny, and she gets sick… a lot. Her sister didn’t have a cold until she was 2 years old. E had her first cold at a few weeks of life and seemed to be sick constantly for her first 3 years.

Why do I worry? Since I first entered medical school 18 years ago I have studied everything that can go right with a child’s health and everything that can go wrong. I have seen innumerable children who have suffered from accidents, cancer, infections, genetic disorders, and autoimmune diseases. When I was in training we used to say “the sweeter the child, the more horrific the diagnosis will be”. There was no truth in our statement. It was just a reaction to the heartbreak we felt; time after time we had to share devastating news about a child to the family that cherished him.

Unfortunately I have kept that superstition with me. My little E is a cup-half-full kind of girl. She dances around the house singing “Let It Go”, yells “wheeeee” the whole time she is flying down the trail on her bike, and shows more determination and grit than almost any child or adult I know. She is also prone to covering me with thousands of kisses and 10 second bear hugs on a daily basis. I have tears in my eyes when I write this because my overwhelming love and admiration for this child is matched by my overwhelming fear that something bad will happen to her. I try to reassure myself by remembering that many of my friends, and parents I see in the office, share my neurosis about their littlest child.

So when do we really need to worry?

  1. Is my child continuing to grow? Your child may be in the 3rd or 30th percentile on her growth curve. What really matters is if she is continuing to follow that percentile (normal) or if she is continuing to drop off the curve (concerning).
  2. Is my child reaching his developmental milestones appropriately (or is he doing well academically)? Check here for more information on developmental milestones.
  3. Does my child get frequent infections requiring antibiotics or hospitalizations? Frequent ear infections in the first year of life are often due to anatomy (small, flat eustachian tubes that don’t drain the middle ear space well), but frequent ear infections are unusual after the age of 2. Recurring bacterial pneumonia, frequent skin infections, or blood infections are more concerning for an immune deficiency.
  4. Does my child have bloody stools or frequent cramping and diarrhea? These can be signs of inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease.

So how do you protect your runt? Fortunately there are a few great things you can do to keep your children healthier: good hand washing, proper nutrition, consistent sleep schedules, limiting screen/TV time, regular exercise, and vaccines. We do all of these things in our home but my baby still get sick. If your child is in daycare or preschool (or his older sibling attends school) then he may get 10-12 viral respiratory infections per year. Exposure to second-hand smoke will also significantly increase his risk of frequent infections.

Thankfully now that E is 4 years old, her illnesses are less frequent and less severe. Hopefully her physical composition will eventually match her emotional one. In the meantime I will still snuggle up next to her when she has a fever, and I will hold her all night when she has a cough. It makes us both feel better.

1. runt (definition from

– an animal that is small or stunted as compared with others of its kind.

– the smallest or weakest of a litter, especially of pigs or puppies.

2. E.B. White, Charlotte’s Web, (New York: Harper and Bros, 1952).

3. No children or animals were harmed in the writing of this post. Both Wilbur and my 4 year old can’t read yet. If little E does read this in the future I am fairly certain she will forgive her mommy for calling her a “runt”.

How to Make the Most of your Visit with the Pediatrician

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This is a guest blog from Sheila Cason, MD. It was previously published on her site Dr. Cason is a photographer, pediatrician, and mother of three. I have great respect for her advice and incredibly compassionate nature.

Photo by Brendan Riley, Flickr Creative Commons

Photo by Brendan Riley, Flickr Creative Commons

Whew! The morning is over and I’m at lunch, preparing for a busy afternoon.

With the ever increasing time crunch, pediatricians are forced to see more patients in less time. Often we are only given 10-15 minutes to get the history, do an exam, make a diagnosis, formulate a plan and then explain the directions to the family.

This may be fine if the chief complaint is ear pain. But what if it’s chronic abdominal pain? Or a seizure? Then it’s even more important to streamline the visit so we can help your child and you get some answers.

Here are some simple ways to make your visit go smoother and get what you need:

1. First off let me know if you are running late for another appointment. I try not to run late but it’s ineveitable sometimes. There have been times when I go into a room and the family is seething! It seems they missed an incredibly important meeting. If I can I will try to adjust the schedule and see you faster. Or I’ll just cut to the nitty gritty and get you out quickly.

2. Let your doctor know what you really want. If you really want antibiotics, you’re going to be mad when you spent all that time and didn’t get it. Let them know. Often I’ll compromise. If it’s viral and they really don’t need the antibiotics, I let them know. But if it’s a cold and it has been over a week and a half and it’s tough for them to return for a recheck, then I may give them a script to take with them. I give instructions to start only if the cold hasn’t resolved by two weeks. Surprisingly most people don’t abuse this and both parties are happy.

3. Prepare your child: Tell your child where they are going. If they are old enough then let them know exactly what we are going to do. Encourage the young ones and don’t threaten shots if they don’t behave! It scares them to death and then I have to spend a lot of extra time coaxing them to let me even come close.

4.Know your history: Often I have a grandparent come in and not know anything. We have to guess and muddle through the history. This can take a lot of time. If you can’t be there, write a note or give me a number that I can call to ask you some pointed questions.

5. Don’t have the doctor tackle every thing on the same day. If your complaint is ear pain and a cold then talking about your child’s short stature might be better addressed at their well check or another appointment. You’re only going to get frustrated that the doc is rushing you.

6. If you’re still not happy let the doctor know. Some people still look at me at the end of the visit, all worried. I know something is up. Most parents who have a child with 1. Headache: worry it’s a tumor 2. Bruises: worry it’s leukemia 3. Fever and a cough: worry it’s pneumonia. Because parents have told me their fears I have learned what bothers them. I can anticipate this and talk with them about it.

I hope this helps. I think that most people who are frustrated that the doc didn’t spend a lot of time with them, didn’t get what they needed. Communication is key! A pediatrician’s number one priority is making sure your child is healthy and you’re happy!

Do you have ways that make your visit go smoother and you get what you need?

Do you have tips for the doctor that will make the visit go smoother?

5 Things You Need to Know About the New Car Seat Laws

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csl-5step-test-graphic-w-textThere has been a lot of buzz lately about new car seat laws in 2014. This is what you need to know:

1- There is no new law in place right now. There is a proposed law that car manufacturers and car seat makers get on the same page; what we want is consistency. Your child’s car seat may allow your child to be in the car seat until 65 pounds, but your child’s weight plus the weight of his car seat weight may exceed the LATCH system’s weight limit (often 65 pounds or less). In this case, the LATCH may not hold the seat in place if there is an accident.

2- If your child plus his car seat exceeds the safe weight limit for your car’s LATCH you can still secure the car seat with a seat belt. There is no maximum weight limit for the seat belt to secure a car seat.

3- You should always use the top tether on your child’s car seat. There is currently no weight limit for the top tether, and we know they significantly reduce the risk of head injuries if you are in an accident.

4- You should still have your infant or toddler in a rear-facing car seat until she is at least 2  years old or she exceeds the height and weight limit for your particular seat. Rear-facing is so much safer that we just changed our daughter’s car seat to forward-facing at 3 ½ years old!

5- Your child should switch to a booster seat after he exceeds the safe height and weight for your forward-facing seat (typically over 4 years old and over 40 pounds). The AAP still recommends that he remain in a booster until he is 8-12 years old and 4 feet 9 inches tall.

For more information and max weight limits for your vehicle go to Car Seats for the Littles and the Car Seat Lady

Fiber: It’s Not Just for Pooping

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Photo by Aaron McIntyre, Flickr Creative Commons

Photo by Aaron McIntyre, Flickr Creative Commons

A recent study from the University of Minnesota found that only 3 percent of American children and 8 percent of adults are getting the amount of fiber recommended per day by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services.

Why do we care?

High fiber intake has been shown to lower risk for heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity. It is also great for pooping.

How much should my child get?

This really depends on his age and energy requirements. The basic formula is 14 grams of fiber for every 1000 kcal consumed. This equates to about:

19 grams for a toddler
25 grams for a preschool through elementary school aged child
26 grams for a middle school aged girl
30 grams for a middle school aged boy
29 grams for a teenage girl
38 grams for a teenage boy

This really means feeding your kids at least 5 servings of fresh fruits and vegetables each day, as well as beans, nuts, and whole-grain breads and cereals. Cereals should have at least 3 grams of fiber and less than 10 grams of sugar per serving.

What specific foods are high in fiber?FiberTable

Can I get enough fiber on a gluten-free diet?

Yes, but… gluten-free often means fiber-deficient unless you pay close attention to what you are eating. A gluten-free diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans can be sufficient. This can be hard to achieve with a carbo-crazed toddler. Children are better off eating multigrain cereals and snacks instead of gluten-free puffs of nothing (unless they have true celiac disease).


Nutr Rev. 2009 Apr;67(4):188-205. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00189.x. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis RH Jr, Ferreri S, Knudtson M, Koraym A, Waters V, Williams CL.

American Heart Association

Mayo Clinic

7 Signs That You Did NOT Have the “Flu”

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Photo by CMRF Crumlin, Flickr Creative Commons

Photo by CMRF Crumlin, Flickr Creative Commons

Whenever I talk about influenza I am told stories about the horrible stomach “flu” someone had the previous week. I agree the stomach “flu” is horrible, but it is not influenza. It should be called a stomach virus or a stomach “bug”. The term stomach “flu” confuses everyone and likely will for years to come.

You probably did NOT have the real “flu”, meaning influenza if ….

1- you were able to get out of bed

2- your symptoms came on gradually

3- your main complaints were vomiting or diarrhea

4- you did not have a cough or sore throat

5- you did not have a fever (greater than 100 fahrenheit)

6- your body didn’t ache from head to toe

7- you were better in 2 or 3 days

There are over 200 viruses that cause bad colds, and almost as many that cause the stomach “flu”. These are not influenza. Influenza is an illness you remember 20 years later. Influenza hits you like a ton of bricks and knocks you down for at least a week. The influenza virus changes so much from one season to another. Some years it is mild, meaning not as contagious or as life-threatening, and some years it is severe.

This year influenza is severe. It is hitting the young and the healthy. 50 young people have died in California this past week, and 50 more died in the week before that. I have not cared for any kids with influenza on my pediatric unit this season. They all bypassed me and were flown to the nearest pediatric ICU. They were all critically ill.

If you think you have influenza it is best to contact your physician within 24 hours. There are antivirals that can help, but they are most effective if started within 48 hours of symptoms. And remember: It is not too late to get your flu shot. Influenza will likely stick around until April or May.

For more information go to:

“Prevention is better than cure”- Elizabeth Blackwell, first woman physician in the U.S. and the U.K., 1849

Photo by Future Atlas, Flickr Creative Commons

Photo by Future Atlas, Flickr Creative Commons

Naturopathic cures for the common cold?

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opiumAs a pediatrician I have come to realize that I don’t always get the whole story when I see my patients. Teenagers will often deny that they smoke (because pot smoking is not smoking, right?), and parents will often deny that they are giving their toddlers medications (because over the counter meds or homemade remedies don’t count, right?). I have learned to ask the same question multiple ways if I am concerned. Parents, unlike some of the teens, are not trying to withhold information. It is usually because the vaporub or herbal remedy seems risk-free or unimportant. I hope it is never because they believe I will disapprove of more natural remedies.

The truth is I am a “naturopath”. I believe in our body’s natural ability to fight off infections and heal itself. I believe in the power of good nutrition, exercise and balance. I do not prescribe cold medicines or antibiotics for viruses. But I have also lived and worked in places where modern medicine is not available. I have seen many children die. Thankfully, modern medicine (antibiotics, chemotherapy, vaccines, screening labs) continues to save the lives of millions of children around the world. I also get to see this every day.

My own children are fully vaccinated. My own children have had antibiotics (once each) for bacterial infections that would have otherwise put them at great risk. My children have had Tylenol and Motrin when they had a fever or were in pain. But mostly my children have had salt water (saline) for their snotty baby noses, honey for coughs (over 1 year old) and chicken soup for their colds. I have spent many nights holding my babies in my arms while they ran fevers or coughed incessantly for hours, but I knew nothing but time would cure their viral illnesses. I so desperately want to fix every hurt but most importantly I need to …. DO NO HARM.

This means I do not use vaporubs (menthol and camphor) or essential oils for my kids. I do not give them alcohol baths for fever. I do not give them herbal remedies or teas. I do not give them antibiotics for viruses, and I do not give them cough or cold medicines. These are the risks:

  • Menthol and essential oil rubs can actually worsen respiratory distress in young children.

  • Alcohol baths can lead to alcohol poisoning, seizures, or death.

  • Herbal supplements are not FDA regulated and up to ⅓ of them don’t contain any of the ingredients listed.

  • Numerous studies have found high levels of lead in tea leaves.

  • Thanks to vaccines, the majority of infections today are viral and antibiotics will not help.

  • Over the counter cold medicines have shown no benefit to kids under 6 years old and they can cause dangerous heart arrythmias in young children.

I have an amazing cousin who is the mother of a very cute one year old. She is a wonderful, very intelligent, and caring mother. Thanks to her great questions and Facebook posts, I continue to learn what she and other parents are trying to help their little ones get through the toughest nights with their sick babies. I continue to research every remedy that it is proposed to find out…. what are the risks? what are the benefits?

In the past, people have tried whiskey, cocaine, and opium (called Svapina in the ad above) to relieve a child’s cough. The truth is, medicine is constantly changing and we can all learn together. Talk to your child’s doctor about what you are using for your kids, or what your friends have tried. Give them the chance to learn from you or to teach you about potential risks. We all want our kids to be safe and healthy. There is no better common goal.

To find out more about complementary medicine practices (both safe and unsafe) please go to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Would you buy a car without seat belts?

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tvBuy a car without seat belts? Probably not. But this holiday season millions of TVs, appliances and furniture are being purchased without safety straps.

Every 3 seconds a child in the U.S. is injured by a falling TV, appliance, or piece of furniture. Every 2 weeks one of these children dies. Every 2 weeks.

As a pediatrician I once tried (and failed) to save a child who was crushed by a falling TV, and I cared for another child who had permanent brain damage from a falling TV. These two children have been a driving force in my focus on safety education. This holiday season please keep safety in mind in your own home, as well as the homes of family and friends that you may visit.

I live in earthquake country so one of the first things we did in preparation for our new baby was strap everything down (in our house and the grandparent’s). There are earthquake straps available in hardware stores throughout the country because the greatest risk is not an earthquake. The greatest risk is a toddler who climbs everything in her path, a preschooler wrestling with a sibling, or a young child trying to turn on the TV.

You wouldn’t buy a car without seat belts. Why would you buy a TV or dresser without safety straps?

For more information:




Fever Phobia

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sick childTrue confession: I don’t have a thermometer…. or at least I have no idea where it is. The truth is I haven’t used one since my youngest was 6 months old because I didn’t need it. A fever is many things (uncomfortable, dehydrating), but a fever itself is not dangerous. So why do doctors and nurses always ask you, “how high was his temperature”? Because many times families report a fever when a child’s temperature is 99 degrees fahrenheit. Everyone’s temperature varies greatly throughout the day and the definition of a fever is a temperature of 100.4 fahrenheit or greater. Your child’s doc only wants to know that because a true fever is a sign that your child is fighting a viral or bacterial infection. Here are some facts about fever that you may find helpful:

1- Fever is your body’s way of raising your internal temperature enough to kill whatever virus or bacteria is attacking you. Your body is brilliant and this is a completely normal response.

2- A fever is always an emergency in a child less than 3 months old. Children this age can still have infections that they picked up in the womb (like GBS or HSV). They can also have a urinary tract infection that can quickly travel to their bloodstream or spinal fluid (meningitis). This is because the barrier between their blood and spinal fluid is still very permeable at this age.

3- The only accurate way to check a temperature in an infant less than 1 year of life is using a rectal thermometer. There are NO other thermometers as accurate in this age. It should be digital, not glass and not mercury. Newer studies have shown that temporal artery thermometers can be used in infants over 3 months old.

4- A fever can NOT cause damage to your child’s brain, even at 105 degrees! Hyperthermia (body temperatures over 107) can cause brain damage or death, but extremely hot environments, not infection, cause this.

5- Height of a fever does not help us determine if the cause is viral or bacterial.

6- Teething does not cause fever.

7- Although a fever is not dangerous, it can make a child very uncomfortable and unwilling to drink fluids. Using acetaminophen or ibuprofen at appropriate doses for your child’s weight is the safest treatment. Aspirin and alcohol baths or rubs are not safe. There is also no reason to put your child in a cold bath.

8- Almost 5% of young children will have a febrile (fever) seizure. The seizure itself is terrifying to watch but this type of seizure is not dangerous. Treating a fever will not prevent a febrile seizure.

Bottom line:

If your child is over 4 months old and fully vaccinated, a fever alone is not a reason to worry. Everyone looks and feels crummy when they actually have a fever. If your child is still playful when the fever comes down that is a very reassuring sign. If your child is dehydrated, lethargic, has a rash, seizure, trouble breathing, or scares you in any way call your doctor or seek medical attention immediately. If your child has been running a fever for a few days then you should also call your child’s doctor for recommendations.

Snot-Nosed Kids

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A child Cleaning her nose with TissueDid you know that on average kids get 10-12 colds per year? A cold can be anything from a snotty nose for a day to a full blown fever, aches, congestion, wheezing or cough. The cough from some colds can last up to 4 weeks. For my littlest one this meant her first two winters pretty much involved about 5 snot free days! Here are some common questions parents ask me:

What is a cold?

     A cold is an upper respiratory infection that can be caused by any number of viruses (over 200 different ones and counting). It causes inflammation and swelling of the upper airways that can give you a fever, headache, muscle aches, congestion, cough, sneezing, sore throat and sometimes trigger wheezing. Antibiotics kill bacteria only so in this case they will NOT help.

What is bronchiolitis?

     Bronchiolitis is basically a cold (same viruses) that moves into the small airways of infants and young children. RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) is most notorious for causing bronchiolitis in the winter, but again there are hundreds of viruses that cause the same symptoms.  The airways of infants are smaller than older kids or adults so the mucus and swelling can cause significant difficulty with breathing or feeding. Young infants, or children exposed to secondhand smoke, are often hospitalized with bronchiolitis if they have significant trouble breathing or get too dehydrated.

When should I seek medical attention?

     If your child is having trouble breathing, wheezing, is not drinking well, or has decreased wet diapers, then you should call his doctor. A fever lasting more than 3 days, severe headache or ear pain could be indicative of a secondary bacterial infection and should be evaluated as well. The color of his snot is not important and really tells you nothing.

How can I prevent them?

    Wash your hands and stop touching your face. An average person touches their face over 5,000 times a day! Obviously these are hard things to enforce for a young child, but if you at least get them to wash up before eating then you are doing better than most. For infants less than 6 months old it is really helpful to try to avoid being around others with snotty noses, fever or cough. You still want to get outside, but in cold and flu season it is best to keep strangers and sick people from touching your child. Most viruses are transmitted by direct contact only, but a few can be transmitted through the air a few feet away.

How do I treat a cold?

     Grandma was right. Chicken noodle soup is still about the best thing we have. A study out of the University of Nebraska Medical Center actually showed that there are some anti-inflammatory properties in chicken noodle soup. It is not clear whether there is any noticeable reduction in cold symptoms, but it is a safe option to try. Most of us still need to rely on acetaminophen or ibuprofen for real anti-inflammatory effect and pain reduction. Most important, you need to make sure your little one keeps drinking (and peeing). Saline drops and gentle bulb suctioning can be helpful to clear out little noses and make breastfeeding or drinking a little easier. Over the counter cold medicines are NOT effective for infants and toddlers and they have too many potentially dangerous side effects. Honey can be a helpful cough suppressant to try once your child is over a year old. We used it so often for E’s second winter I was afraid her baby teeth might rot out! She slept better so it was a risk I was willing to take.

Could it be allergies?

     If your child is under 2 years old the answer is usually no. It takes multiple exposures to develop an allergic response to environmental allergens. For plants, grasses, and tree pollen these exposures are usually seasonal so an allergy would be uncommon before 2 years old. Indoor allergens can be present year round so these can develop sooner.  If your child has a stuffy nose, watery or itchy eyes, frequent nose rubbing, snorting, or sneezing that doesn’t resolve in a few weeks then it could be an allergy. Mold, dust mites, pet dander or smoke can be frequent culprits. If you are concerned then please talk to your child’s doctor.

Could it be a sinus infection?

     Kid’s sinuses are not fully developed until they are teenagers. This makes sinus infections less common in young children. Even so, cold viruses cause swelling and inflammation of the upper airways that can prevent even a child’s sinuses from draining well. This can cause bacteria to flourish in the sinuses. In this case antibiotics are appropriate. A severe headache, cold symptoms that last over a week, fever lasting more than 3 days, fever with facial pressure, or swelling around the eyes can all be signs of a sinus infection.

Do you have any advice from grandma or home remedies that may have worked for your family? If you do please share them. I would love to research them and share with you what I find.

Having “the talk”

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Talking to kids about stranger danger, safety, and sexual abuse

Thankfully my girls are still little enough that “the talk” is not about SEX but rather about SAFETY.  Last week I had a really Bad Mommy moment. Apparently the kindergarteners were getting out of school early and I had missed the memo. Unfortunately my daughter’s teacher released her out into the play yard without noticing that I WAS NOT THERE! She then locked the classroom and left. Although I have played the “what if” game in my head a hundred times since then, it all turned out fine. One of the daddies, a good friend, was out there with his son and noticed her alone. He called me and thankfully grandma was able to rush over immediately and save the day. Yikes. The rest of that day I kept wondering: Was I teaching my daughters enough to protect them from others who may try to harm them?

There are so many safety issues that go through my mind everyday. At the hospital I see babies who have fallen off beds, toddlers who have swallowed grandma’s pills, preschoolers who have been crushed by a falling TV, and helmetless teenagers who have fallen off their skateboards. The list goes on and the memories of these kids have turned me into a neurotic safety freak at home. Thankfully I have not seen or known anyone whose child has been abducted. I would have really fallen apart last week if I did. According to the US Department of Justice “there are about 115 stereotypical kidnappings, defined as abductions perpetrated by a stranger or slight acquaintance and involving a child who was transported 50 or more miles, detained overnight, held for ransom or with the intent to keep the child permanently, or be killed”. More children actually died from  chicken pox in the U.S. each year until the varicella vaccine became available. The news media has not made us fear chicken pox, but watching CNN will give us nightmares about losing our babies to a stranger. The crime numbers that we should probably pay more attention to are the statistics on sexual abuse. Nearly 25% of all girls and 15% of boys in the U.S. will be sexually assaulted or abused. Look around your child’s classroom. That is 1 in 4 of those girls and 1 in 6 of the boys. Depressing stuff.

The good news is that we can better protect our children from others who may harm them by educating ourselves and educating them. This is what you can do:

  • Talk about it! From the time my girls were toddlers we talked about who should be changing their diapers, and why other people should not touch or look at their “private parts”. I want them to be proud of their bodies. I want them to streak through the house squealing after baths. But I also want them to know that their bodies are their own. No one else has a right to touch them or hurt them. It is important to let your child know that other people should not be asking your child to touch them either.  Using correct anatomical terms will help them explain and understand the concepts better. I talk to every child I see about this in the office before I examine them.
  • Teach your children about good secrets and bad secrets. Good secrets would be something like a surprise party or present. Bad secrets would be anything that makes your child feel sad, guilty, or anxious. These are secrets that have to be shared with a trusted adult.

  • Give them “what if” scenarios. “What would you do if mommy was in the shower and someone knocked at the door?”; “What would you do if someone approached you and said mommy was hurt and they needed to take you to her?”; “What would you do if someone lost his puppy and asked you to help find it?”; “What do you do if an adult you don’t know pulls up in a vehicle to ask you a question?”

  • Read books about stranger danger and safety. We have a Winnie the Pooh book that the girls love. We read it over and over again and talk about what Piglet and Pooh learned from Christopher Robin. If you engage a child’s imagination then she is more likely to remember the lesson you are trying to teach her.

  • More tips: teach your kids your address and phone number, teach them how to call 911, label their clothes with your phone number, do not let your child use a public restroom alone.


National Children’s Alliance Child Abuse Resources

The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children